Yo compared to our Battery Watch app – Why Investors Value Yo At $10 Million – and – if Yo = $10m then Battery Watch = $20+m2014-08-13, on 10:10 | In startups | 4 Comments | Dieser Artikel in Deutsch
I’m still baffled by the bold move of Silicon Valley investors valuing the company behind the Yo app at $10,000,000 USD. According to themselves Yo is:
The simplest & most efficient communication tool in the world.
Yo is a single-tap zero-character communication tool.
Yo is everything and anything, it all depends on you, the recipient and the time of the Yo.
To an ordinary mind like mine the app does not sound very interesting and from a targeting point of view too general than you could actually define a specific target audience for it. Yet, I was intrigued by the simplicity and most importantly by the buzz around it. About a month or so ago, I decided to download Yo. Right after it launched publicly, actually. I have 6 contacts on there and in the beginning it was kind of fun to Yo people just for the heck of it. Nowadays I only Yo ‘back’ if someone Yos me first.
The Wall Street Journal apparently has made a very compelling case that Yo might become a communications and marketing platform to allow people and brands to communicate with each other in a more simplified yet sophisticated way. For example, adding a link (that opens a website) to a Yo notification. To be honest, the real key word here is platform. That is what gets investors all nervous to throw money at you. To them, there is no benefit in funding just another app. It’s the platform behind the app that makes all the difference. Based on the anticipation of creating a simple and very direct marketing platform to bring brands closer to consumers makes check books open magically and throw money at an app that actually is absurd. In fact, Michael Santoli of Yahoo! Finance said: “When almost everyone immediately agrees that something is absurd – how can it possibly fail?”
So let’s look at the plain numbers thus far. According to the Yahoo! Finance article, Yo has “been downloaded 1 million times and has around 50,000 active users.” Based on a per active user valuation (which is how many tech and especially social media companies are valued by) that makes a staggering $200 per active user valuation. Compared to the $19bn WhatsApp takeover by Facebook which valued each of their 450 million active users at $42 per such user. The Yo valuation at 5 fold seems a little high. Anyway, another interesting aspect to look at, is the “stickiness” of an app. We at S4BB Limited look at a metric called “Retention” to determine the stickiness. In very simple terms, that’s the ratio between total downloads and active users. So at 50k active users and 1m total downloads, Yo has a retention of 5%. Common industry standard for a good / sticky app is something around the 20-25% retention mark.
Just to compare this to our recently re-launched Battery Watch app on Android: 193k total users, 103k active users, 58% retention. Here is a screen shot taken this morning in our Flurry app analytics console:
Based on the number of active users our valuation for Battery Watch should be twice the Yo valuation so we’d end up at $20 million. Based on the retention rate our Battery Watch should be valued at 11.6 times the Yo valuation. That would be an outrageous $116 million. Plus, compared to Yo, Battery Watch is even profitable already. Yo, b***!
Sure, Yo has all the publicity, the advantage of being located in Silicon Valley and the platform (hope) story behind it. While we don’t have the first and second point, our platform is currently being designed as well and will be launched in select markets very soon.
It remains to be seen how successful Yo can be in the long run. Right now it seems to be hip – at least on the investor and media side – but to build a long-term sustainable business model on top of that will be challenging. I wish the Yo team all the best in their endeavors.
More about Battery Watch: Battery Watch is a very simple, useful and yet fun battery monitoring tool. It combines essential battery information, useful TSA / UK DfT-compliant battery warnings with funny voices that make such a usually “boring / ordinary” utility app really fun to use. Try it for free through Google Play: http://bit.ly/BWatchA or BlackBerry World: http://bit.ly/GetBatteryWatch
About the author: Patrick is co-founder and CEO of S4BB Limited. An independent, boot-strapped mobile app company that has published over 48,000 apps for Android, BlackBerry and iOS. He is based in S4BB’s global headquarter in Hong Kong. Patrick has also co-founded and invested into other startups like Sky Drone, Toshi, TreeCrunch Limited, Skylab Mobilesystems Limited and Slate Takes Limited. You can find his full bio at www.patrick-kosiol.de or connect with him on LinkedIn, Xing or AngelList.
It has been 9.5 years since I left Germany for China to help start Skylab Mobilesystems Limited. One year after I co-founded S4BB Limited and subsequently other ventures like TreeCrunch Limited, Slate Takes Limited, Sky Drone and most recently Toshi. Since moving from Kunming (Yunnan, China) to Hong Kong I have been involved in the local startup community by as much as I can just make time for it.
Last week for example I was filling in at Web Wednesday as it seems there were not enough mobile app developers who had signed up for the 6th edition of their famous Battle of the Apps. That night was a great experience with a rather small, yet interesting crowd I was happy to talk to before and after my stage appearance.
Some younger folks I talked to are thinking about starting their own project – I believe they were recent university graduates. Having the courage to launch your company in Hong Kong – especially when you are a Hong Kong-local – is a huge thing in my eyes. While in the west (and with “west” I mainly mean North America) the startup culture is being is embraced, it’s somewhat glorious and something to strive to. Here in Asia it is widely being avoided by young folks, though. There is a lot of tradition in play and a lot more of of parental control. As opposed to Europe, in Asia parents still have a lot to say when their fresh uni graduate kids look for their first job. Often the parents have paid hefty tuition for their kid’s education and therefore, they demand them to get a “proper” job at a large firm like a bank or an international conglomerate. That doesn’t event stop at folks who want to start a business themselves, it is going as far as getting the right job right after uni. In fact, I heard from some startups who did actually create a “care package” for a job applicant’s parents to show them how it is like to work at a startup.
When we started off initially, we did not take any external funding nor did we have any ‘family support’. In 2005 we just thought there might be a market for software running on mobile devices. Now those are commonly referred to as Apps. Even after almost a decade working in this field, having made many mistakes, paid for them monetarily and with time, still making mistakes (but keep learning from them); I still feel very much like running a startup. Or in matter of fact multiple startups.
Now running a startup isn’t an easy task. Sometimes, I meet people who want to start up themselves, but they don’t realize how hard it can be. Especially when you are coming from a “stable” job environment – I could actually elaborate for hours on the interpretation of ‘stable’ in this sense, but that’s for another day. So coming from a “stable” job and starting your own company is a tough step. First and foremost, your usual monthly salary just disappears over night. You will not have any (significant) income for months and or even years. You are not gonna have free weekends, regular 9-to-5 working hours or even proper vacations. While most people actually know that, expect it and prepare for the monetary part of it in terms of financial projections and goals; I believe a lot of people significantly underestimate the psychological changes that come with it. It’s surely not for everyone.
Working at a startup comes with many freedoms and sometimes even perks (like soft drinks, snacks and cool people that we are working with). Over these past years we have had 29 people who worked with us and left on their own will – at S4BB Limited alone. As a matter of fact, I was just thinking about that today and it motivated me to write this post. In the age group of 25 to 40 year olds the average time an employee is with the same company is probably something like 2 years in Hong Kong. I don’t have any hard number on this, but this is what we have seen here and it is also what I know from other local companies. Compared to Germany’s employees who stay 11 years on average with the same company, Hong Kong has quite some turnover. To be honest, the labor market is much more competitive here allowing folks to change jobs easily. Plus, head hunters (some of which are close friends) are very talented and motivated to place the right person at the right company. I also have to say that people don’t quit jobs, they usually
fire quit their managers. I didn’t just think of that, it’s commonly known and I do agree to that.
Being one of those “managers” myself who has been fired by quite a number of employees, I have to admit that every single time I get fired, I feel devastated for at least a couple of days – depending on how close we were or at least I thought we were. I believe one of the main differences between working in a large corporation and in a startup is about processes and projects. In large corporations you usually have a bigger project that lasts for a couple of months or a duty that is rather constant or something similar. Startups are small, very small, that means they don’t have any manpower to waste at any given time during the day. This also results in many tasks and duties being shifted around on very short notice. To someone coming from a large corporation and now working at a startup that can be frustrating as one might not be able to see the bigger picture with constantly changing tasks or it can be motivating and even challenging. You just have to be the right person for it. Whether you run the show or you help run it.
The only big advantage startups have over established companies is speed:
- Speed in developing and launching new products and services.
- Speed in reacting to changes in the business environment.
- Speed in decision processes that are necessary to be made quickly.
- Speed in experimenting, failing and succeeding.
At my uni graduation ceremony the rector was holding a speech and I only remember one thing he said that: “In this new world not the big fish eat the small ones. The quick fish eat the slow ones.” You could also say it the Bruce Lee way: “Be water, my friend.”
We never stop learning and should always be prepared for change – every day – and then embrace it.
Just some days ago during an event at Cyberport, Hong Kong’s Tech Hub, I took a look out the window and noticed that right downstairs a rich guy and a not so rich guy (should I call him poor?) are living.
I find it interesting that these kinds of things are defined somewhat differently in other countries like Germany for example
P.S.: This post is more in the non-sense category, but after all the ‘serious’ stuff recently, I wanted to share another view about live in Hong Kong. By the way, none of the cars are mine and I am also not living there unfortunately. The houses are small, but they are bloody expensive.
I am writing this down because I read about 50 blog articles and how tos on the web regarding this topic. Yet, I couldn’t find any good advise that fit my video data storage issue.
Like I mentioned before, I am also involved in Slate Takes Limited – a boutique video production company based out of Hong Kong. Slate Takes is currently finishing up the last touches of a 42 webisode travel series for The Vagabond Project (more info and the official trailer at their Vagabond Blog), working with clients like Red Bull at events, assisting in shooting movies, and helping international brands to turn their vision onto moving pictures. As all of our work is done at least in Full HD, you can imagine that there is a lot of data that needs to be handled, stored and backed up.
In matter of cost efficiency, nothing beats magnetic drives — still. The difference is not as big as it was some years ago, but it is still there. However, such “tapes” don’t really perform that well. Working video projects is not just about saving the final video somewhere. It is all about storing the “raw data” that comes from the camera consistently and easily accessible. If you need one day to find a tape, copy data from that tape to your computer, and then find out that the tape was damaged towards the end of it, you are f***ed. Yes, tapes do definitely provide a longer durability than hard drives or CDs, but in order to achieve redundancy, you would need to have at least two copies of each tape. We don’t even want to think about the speed if you need to access data quickly and get things done.
I have always been a fan of hard drives and RAID systems in general (about 8 years ago I had a server with 1 TB storage at home — I thought I’d never get that filled up!). We have been using a 4-bay Synology NAS loaded with 4x 2TB hard drives for about a year now. Running in RAID 5 they provide some data protection in case one hard drive has an hardware defect. On top of that, the system comes with a 1 GB/s LAN connection which allows fairly quick access. In fact, it is possible to edit videos using Final Cut Pro 7 on Mac connected to the NAS via a GigaBit switch — of course not as fast as accessing the data on a local hard drive nor on a local SSD drive; but it works. If that’s not fast enough, the GB/s connection allows quick data transfer to your local machine.
Now, one year after its incarnation, we had to look into expanding our storage again. 8 TB were filled up (from which about 6 TB were usable due to RAID5) and data kept flying in. All options were on the table, but I decided to stick with Synology and only upgrade to a 12-bay NAS which can easily be extended by another 12 bays to store up to 72 TB. Synology’s “DiskStation” software is easy to use, yet quite feature rich and low in maintenance. Furthermore, the same partitions that had been created on the first 4 TB could be kept; making the transition easier. The new setup looks like this:
The great thing is: this unit even has 2x 1 GB/s LAN connections which allows more than one user to access files with maximum data transfer rates. Two additional 2 GB hard drives were installed to increase our storage by 50%. The transition to the new system was pretty straight forward if you follow Synology’s Migration How To. This setup allows us now to expand the NAS by up to 6 hard drives at any time without worrying about needing to expand it to fit more drives. Now the “expansion process” is running and from the progress it shows so far, it might run for a while.
In case you are looking for a similar setup, here a quick wrap-up of the costs:
We will see how long this setup will last. At least for now, it comforts me that there is gonna be at least a year or two until we have to think about an alternative storage system. For now, this should be sufficient and price-wise it was well, required.
Building a Company Targeting Consumers versus Targeting Businesses – From an Online / Social Media Perspective2012-03-28, on 13:56 | In work | No Comments | Dieser Artikel in Deutsch
A couple of years ago when we started building mobile apps for BlackBerry® smartphones the majority of BlackBerry® users were business people. They used their devices because they got them from their employer. The biggest BlackBerry® app buyer group back then were businesses who wanted to improve their business processes and bring more functionality to mobile. Obviously, we could have gone the way of building applications and services for those companies. As we weren’t the best B2B sales people, we were in not in the best physical location (Kunming, PRC) to meet up with business decision makers and we couldn’t be bothered to nurture business relations and attend ‘networking events'; we chose the path of targeting consumers directly. In a sense, it’s more fun anyway.
By targeting consumers we have to focus on moving at a faster pace. We need to bring updates of products very frequently, we need to publish new products often and we have to hit the sweet spot of what people really want, and so on. On top of that we have to establish a proper relationship with our users. This includes multiple communication channels like email, direct instant messaging, Twitter, Facebook, etc. Since the launch of S4BB’s Facebook page back in October 2011, we could grow our fan base to over 120,000 fans in less than 6 months. Most recently, we are pushing this a bit more and are seeing tremendous interest. To our marketing interns: Great job so far!
Building a huge fan base is usually one of the main goals of consumer companies when it comes to social media like Facebook for example. Every marketer you might want to hire, keeps telling you: you need a huge base (newsletter subscribers, Twitter followers, Facebook fans, feed subscribers, etc.) and later on you just need to “activate” them to sell products and services to them. That does sound good in theory, but let’s be honest here – what’s happening in the real world? In fact most companies spent a lot of money on building up huge online / social media properties with Facebook pages and communities way bigger than our S4BB Apps. Yet, most of those brands utilize their social media presence in the traditional “one-way direct marketing” kind of sense by kicking out a discount voucher once a week and publishing news about their products. Hoping these initiatives pay off. Yes, we do that too and yes, everything can be tracked to ensure proper ROI. But the truly big thing is: social media actually allows us to have a direct bi-directional communication with our brand’s audience. “Social Media Gurus” can talk you to sleep about that topic. Yet, nobody has an answer on how to manage bi-directional conversations with hundreds of thousands of fans and followers who have different views about different topics, products; speak different languages, live in different time zones and countries, and could all talk at the same time — to you.
At S4BB Ltd. and Skylab Mobilesystems Ltd. we are building products for consumers in a large scale. We target global audiences in any country in the world with any mobile platform they prefer. At TreeCrunch Ltd. we are actually building a platform for companies which have huge online properties with many customers, followers, fans; simply users, I like to call them. TreeCrunch’s direct customer-engagement platform allows us to overcome these challenges in communicating with our audiences at S4BB and Skylab, but it also allows any brand like yours to do the same. Is your company up for that?
More to come. Stay tuned and subscribe to my RSS feed.
I am usually not the kind of guy who likes to boast with numbers, but in this case I believe it helps to put things into perspective. For over seven years I am in the mobile app business targeting consumers directly. Over the years we have created thousands of products, most of them paid, some completely free and some with ads.
For years, I did not believe in monetization of apps through advertising. Even today, I am still very skeptical about that because you need to have A LOT of ad requests per day so that any significant income can be generated from that. At the moment, our few (around 10) mobile applications that sport ad banners, generate up to 165 million (165,000,000) ad requests per day. That makes up to 5.115 billion ad requests per month. If you compare that to a fairly large mobile advertising company like Adfonic with their “35 billion ad requests per month” (src: About Adfonic) we are doing quite alright for a small app company. We are using a mix of different ad networks depending on what performs best on which platform. Besides that we are breaking it down into country/region to use appropriate ad provider that is best for that region. Part of that also involves ad providers who do not support certain platforms natively. So built server-side components to handle such ad requests in a “proxy” kind of way that still allows us to get ads shown in apps on a certain platform that is not officially supported by the ad provider. Basically, we have a mini website that just shows an ad; and we can have hundreds of thousands of mobile devices accessing this website from all over the world at the same time.
Using cloud service providers like Amazon AWS, Rackspace, SoftLayer, Microsoft Azure, or others any can serve a virtually unlimited number of requests these day. It all depends on your credit card limit. There are obviously usage patterns of programs of applications and over the course of the day, we have ups and downs. For example, at midnight GMT most people all over the world like to use our applications and therefore they request more ads. Five hours later, we experience the lowest traffic. Depending on application store release schedules, promotions, featured listings, user notifications, external promotions like on blogs or elsewhere, unexpected sudden spikes in traffic can occur any time. “Automatic Scaling” in combination with “Load Balancing” seemed to be the magic solutions for this.
After months of running a bunch of server instances behind a load balancer we were quite happy with the performance. It was easy for us determine usage patterns and see how many servers we need to serve the average maximum number of requests without our service to fail. We didn’t think that much about cost-optimization because our cloud computing bills weren’t that high; so we didn’t really work on such auto scaling components. That had two main disadvantages: Firstly, we spent more that we needed to as we probably didn’t need half of the server that were running while we had low traffic. Secondly, we were not prepared for sudden massive spikes in traffic. With TreeCrunch on the other hand, we are building a scalable system from the ground up.
So early this week I took three hours and looked into how to implement such auto-scaling. Actually, it took me two hours to install the tools properly. However, as you can see in the above charts, the current systems works in a way that if we hit a maximum amount of average traffic per server, a new server is being created and added to our load balancer — it then immediately starts serving ads. If the average traffic falls below a certain threshold, a server is being terminated and therefore stops serving ads. To minimize server load, we run really tiny PHP scripts that are extremely optimized just for the purpose of requesting an ad the desired ad company and delivering such ad to the client (mobile app). As web server we are currently using lighttpd which is very lightweight indeed. Interestingly, we noticed that there is not really a problem with “normal” system resources to handle a lot of requests. Our CPU usage is fairly acceptable (constantly around 50%), we don’t need any hard drive space as we are just proxy’ing requests and we don’t even run out of memory. The first limitation one of our ad servers hits, is the maximum number of used sockets which is by default around 32,000 (or something like that) on Debian-based linux. That’s more or less an artificial limitation by the operating, but we didn’t play with adjusting that one yet.
Summary: In a fairly short period of time, we managed to set up a proper auto scaling policy that allows to scale up to virtually unlimited numbers of ad requests. With fairly low budgets companies nowadays can setup proper data centers, serve millions of users and maintain their infrastructure with a few very talented people and without purchasing any hardware that would be obsolete a year or two later.
I love the time I am living in. Every single day something new and exciting pops up.
Though, I don’t find much time to write articles these days, I believe I should write down my experiences as long as I still remember them properly. My fellow regular readers might have noticed a slight change in logos on the right sidebar which now sports the TreeCrunch logo; a company I co-founded a couple of months ago. In a nutshell, TreeCrunch is a social, viral, open-ended customer engagement platform with an incredible potential to influence companies and society.
From the beginning, we wanted to form a company that accomplishes four major goals:
- Build a successful tech company with global reach based out of Hong Kong.
- Help companies understand their social media audience and improve their business.
- Create a workplace where coders are kings and everyone loves to come to work.
- Expand as quickly as possible by raising funds internally and externally.
Building a tech company in Hong Kong is not easy. Yes, infrastructure is incredibly good — super fast non-firewalled Internet connection (that’s actually all a hacker needs), according to OECD most economic freedom, considerably low tax rates, access to all kinds of conveniences in life, a very good life style and any kind of beer your can imagine (important for us Germans) over one hundred “AAA” rated beaches. Yet, there are disadvantages and obstacles to overcome: recruiting of the best programmers available (remember, we are in competition with banks, hedge funds and property companies that are loaded with cash), high cost of lodging, cultural differences (to most uni grads is not as “cool” to work at a startup as it is silicon valley for example).
Helping companies understanding their social media audience is not the big problem. Our technology is superior, our prototypes are working, our first clients have committed to enjoy our services and work with us; growing with us.
Creating a great workplace for hackers is also the easier part for us. Over the past years we have been gathering a lot of information about how to make a programmer’s life fulfilling and fun. It can be quite boring when you are cramped in a 2 sqm area behind a tiny desk right next to the guy who showers once a week. Let’s start with small things like free soft drinks and snacks, free Friday lunches, air hockey tables, going over to purposely not enforcing too harsh deadlines (taking off pressure) and ending up in private rooms for each developer with two 23 inch (or bigger) monitors and the fastest desktop computers money buy. It is a very “not typical HK style” workplace and it is obviously not the right place for everyone. We believe the ones who like to work without too much supervision, but a lot of responsibility and creative ownership – those will change the world and they will change other people’s worlds.
Expanding as quickly as we can is not easy either. With S4BB, Skylab and Slate Takes (the other logos on the right) we have always pursued the way of self-sustaining growth without external funding. So for years now, our strategy has been exclusively: get profitable first; then spend money. That came with a lot advantages like not being in debt, having complete control over the direction the company and its products need to go. For example, a couple of years back we decided not to do any contractual mobile development work with S4BB and Skylab which obviously had a negative effect on cashflow in the short term. We decided to spend our time (==money) to build our own products that became assets of our business and have helped us a lot over the long term to create sustainable constant income to fund the creation of an awesome hacker workplace. On top of that, I don’t like to bring someone else’s dream to life.
With TreeCrunch on the other hand, we are going down the typical “Silicon-Valley-Style Tech Startup Road” with a slight twist. We are three co-founders that invested their own money, have a unique vision, developed superior technology, come with over 30 years of combined industry experience and (most importantly) we have run companies before; without going bankrupt. Even though we had enough ‘internal’ funding that we wouldn’t need to raise more, we are still doing it. Everyone knows this, but sometimes it has to be spoken out loud: “You got to raise money when you don’t need it.” That is one of the reasons why we are about to close our first pre-seed funding round raising our cash reserves by about 50%. Furthermore, TreeCrunch just got awarded the Cyberport Creative Micro Fund which comes with a grant of HK$100k.
With TreeCrunch we joined several programs so far, these are two:
Fund raising in Hong Kong is an interesting challenge. There are plenty of semi-governmental funds (like CCMF), fully covered government schemes as well as private companies (like Microsoft) with their programs. These are great opportunities which we will look and enter into when it makes sense. There are also a lot of wealthy people and families around who made a fortune with properties, stocks and other businesses. The usual way of investing their wealth is not related with startups – and the sub-group of tech-related startups is even further away from that.
For example, you won’t believe how incredibly hard it seems to be to set up a simple thing like a “shareholder’s agreement”. In the U.S. there are templates for this, you can go to almost any lawyer in the bay area and you will get a template for a couple of bucks or shares. For those who don’t know: Hong Kong’s economy is built on two major pillars: the property and the stock market. Other major factors of Hong Kong’s economy include the financial industry, import/export and tourism/retail. Then, for quite a while there is not much coming along the list of important industries and at the further end of it some creative industries like movie production, media or IT are popping up. Hong Kong is an incredible place for business and life – yet it surprises me again and again that there are not that many companies actually creating assets like intellectual property for example. We want to create a successful tech company with global reach and along the way help transforming Hong Kong into a more diversified economy and create long-term highly qualified jobs.
We know that our biggest assets are our co-workers and we hire only the best we can find. This is where we put our money and it will help us fulfill our dreams and help our customers to solve their problems.
More information about TreeCrunch Limited: www.treecrunch.com
This one is in German. Feel free to use Google Translate to a rough idea of what the heck I am talking about.
Wie schon seit mittlerweile vielen Jahren habe ich über Weihnachten mal wieder den Weg in die Heimat angetreten. Das ist doch immer schon was besonderes. Seit mittlerweile über 10 Jahren findet bereits unser alljährliches B.L. Flyers Weihnachtsturnier statt. Dabei sind immer alle aktuellen und ehemaligen Flyers eingeladen. Der Koz hat fast 10 Jahre gebraucht, um das Turnier und somit den Pokal zum ersten Mal letztes Jahr zu gewinnen. Dieses Jahr wurden die Teams ausgelost und wahrscheinlich war es Glück, aber ich bin in dem Sieger-Team gelandet. Von daher gab es dieses Jahr den Pott zum zweiten mal in Folge — nur aufgrund unserer Korbdifferenz (wahrscheinlich weil ich den letzten Dreier reingedrückt hatte ;)).
Achja, die Presse war auch vorbeigekommen. Aus irgendeinem Grund war meine Anreise von Hong Kong wohl sehr interessant und somit habe ich es mal wieder geschafft der netten Journalistin einen guten Titel zu verschaffen. Gern geschehen “cb”.
I like those websites that state very prominently that their site is secure, yet it is not.
I know it says that I am browsing their secure “server” which might not necessarily mean that the connection to that server is secure. However, a standard HTTPS connection would have been enough for me. Lucky me, I didn’t need to pay for that T-Shirt so no credit card information was sent anywhere. Anyone who wants to get one too, can sign up at DevCon Asia.
This nicely done timelapse of Hong Kong and it’s people is definitely worth kozen’s world! Just click “play” below:
It covers everything: skyline by day and night, temple street night market, shopping, ICC (tallest building in HK), HK airport (by Norman Foster), bus rides, nature, bicycle rides, cultural centre, harbor, ferries, container ships, symphony of lights, and demonstrations.